Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Volume and Cardiac Surgery Availability Effect on Acute Coronary Syndrome-Related Cardiogenic Shock

Samer Noaman, Sara Vogrin, Diem Dinh, Jeffrey Lefkovits, Angela L. Brennan, Christopher M. Reid, Antony Walton, David Kaye, Jason E. Bloom, Dion Stub, Yang Yang, Craig French, Stephen J. Duffy, Nicholas Cox, William Chan, on behalf of the VCOR Investigators

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study sought to assess the association between cardiac surgery availability and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) volume with clinical outcomes of cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Background: CS remains a grave complication of ACS with high mortality rates despite timely reperfusion and improved heart failure therapies. Methods: The study analyzed data from consecutive patients with CS complicating ACS who underwent PCI and were prospectively enrolled in the VCOR (Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry) from 26 hospitals in Victoria. We compared patients treated at cardiac surgical centers (CSCs) versus non-CSCs as well as the annual CS PCI volume (stratified into tiers of <10, 10-25, and >25 cases) for in-hospital major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and long-term mortality. Results: Of 1,179 patients with CS, the mean age of patients was 65 years; males comprised 74%, and 22% had diabetes mellitus. Cardiac arrest occurred in 38% of patients, while 90% presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 26% received intra-aortic balloon pump support. Overall, in-hospital and long-term mortality were 42% and 51%, respectively. There was no difference among patients treated non-CSCs compared with a CSCs for in-hospital MACCE and mortality (both P > 0.05). Similarly, there was no association between tiers of annual CS PCI volume with in-hospital MACCE and mortality (both P > 0.05). Conclusions: Comparable short- and long-term mortality rates among patients with ACS complicated by CS treated by PCI irrespective of cardiac surgery availability and CS PCI volume support the emergent treatment of these gravely ill patients at their presenting PCI-capable hospital.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)876-886
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2022


  • cardiac surgery
  • cardiogenic shock
  • PCI volume

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