The characteristics of the fetal and adult populations of Leydig cells from postnatal rat testes were compared by Percoll gradient centrifugation. A single peak of hCG binding, due to the presence of fetal Leydig cells, was obtained after purification of intertubular cells from 8-day-old animals. Two peaks of specific hCG binding were obtained after purification of intertubular cells from 15-day-old rats: it was confirmed by autoradiographic techniques that the hCG was bound by adult-like Leydig cells in one peak and fetal Leydig cells in the other. Similarly, intertubular cell preparations from 21- and 25-day-old rats resolved into two peaks of hCG binding; adult-like Leydig cells were observed in the first peak, but fetal Leydig cells were rarely observed in the second of these peaks. These results demonstrate the separation of two Leydig cell populations from intertubular cells obtained from animals aged up to 15 days. Thereafter the pattern of the hCG binding profile is similar but is not due to the presence of the same cell types. Therefore these results emphasize the necessity for morphological identification of cell types to permit the correct interpretation of the corresponding biochemical data.