Pathological and immunological changes after challenge infection with Pasteurella multocida in naive and immunized calves

N L Mathy, J-P D Mathy, R P Lee, J Walker, Shari Lofthouse, Elza Nicole Theresia Meeusen

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Abstract

Challenge infections of calves with Pasteurella multocida were established to characterize the local inflammatory response and determine the effect of previous exposure to live bacteria on the post-challenge immune response. Experimental infections were established by intratracheal inoculation of P. multocida in both naive calves and calves that had been previously vaccinated with two subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of live bacteria. Histological, immunohistological and cytokine expression studies were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples, lung parenchymal tissues and lung lymph nodes (LN). In comparison to uninfected control animals in which no lung lesions were observed, a patchy to confluent bronchopneumonia was observed following infection of naive calves, characterized by abscess formation, haemorrhage, oedema and suppurative consolidation. Cellular analysis following infection of naive animals was characterized by an influx of neutrophils in the BAL, with macrophages and dendritic cells observed in the lesion perimeter. A significant increase in the number of CD8(+) blasts expressing MHC (major histocompatibility) II was also observed in the BAL of infected calves. Decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and increased expression of IL-8 compared to naive unchallenged controls was apparent in lung LN. In comparison, a more limited pathology was observed in vaccinated animals post-challenge, indicating partial protection conferred by the s.c. immunization with live bacteria. Studies of vaccinated animals showed the presence of bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the lung tissue and an increase in the number of B-cells and CD4(+) T-cells expressing MHCII in the lung LN after challenge. In contrast to primary infection, there was no significant influx of neutrophils in the BAL. Instead, a population of newly recruited monocytes/macrophages was observed. Increased IL-.....
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179 - 188
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Volume85
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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