Patent foramen ovale, dialysis and microembolization

Sudhakar George, Stephen G Holt, David Hildick-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


We undertook bubble contrast transthoracic echocardiography to identify PFO in HD patients and in a control population of peritoneal dialysis patients. We interrogated draining arteriovenous fistulae to confirm that microemboli are created during HD. We then undertook transcranial Doppler scanning of the middle cerebral artery before and during dialysis, with and without Valsalva augmentation, to detect cerebral microemboli in HD patients and in the control group
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569 - 574
Number of pages6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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