We have previously developed non-invasive in vivo mucociliary transport (MCT) monitoring methods using synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to evaluate potential therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF). However, previous in vivo measurements of MCT velocity using this method were lower than those from alternate methods. We hypothesise this was due to the surface chemistry of the uncoated particles. We investigated the effect of particle surface coating on MCT marker performance by measuring the velocity of uncoated, positively-charged (aminated; NH2), and negatively-charged (carboxylated; COOH) particles. The effect of aerosolised hypertonic saline (HS) was also investigated, as previous in vivo measurements showed HS significantly increased MCT rate. PCXI experiments were performed using an ex vivo rat tracheal imaging setup. Prior to aerosol delivery there was little movement of the uncoated particles, whilst the NH2 and COOH particles moved with MCT rates similar to those previously reported. After application of HS the uncoated and COOH particle velocity increased and NH2 decreased. This experiment validated the use of COOH particles as MCT marker particles over the uncoated and NH2 coated particles. Our results suggest that future experiments measuring MCT using synchrotron PCXI should use COOH coated marker particles for more accurate MCT quantification.