Mitophagy, the selective engulfment and clearance of mitochondria, is essential for the homeostasis of a healthy network of functioning mitochondria and prevents excessive production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species from damaged mitochondria. The mitochondrially targeted PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin are well-established synergistic mediators of the mitophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria. This pathway relies on the ubiquitination of a number of mitochondrial outer membrane substrates and subsequent docking of autophagy receptor proteins to selectively clear mitochondria. There are also alternate Parkin-independent mitophagy pathways mediated by BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 and Nip-3 like protein X as well as other effectors. There is increasing evidence that ablation of mitophagy accelerates a number of pathologies. Familial Parkinsonism is associated with loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 and Parkin. A growing number of studies have observed a correlation between impaired Parkin activity and enhanced cancer development, leading to the emerging concept that Parkin activity, or mitophagy in general, is a tumour suppression mechanism. This review examines the molecular mechanisms of mitophagy and highlights the potential links between Parkin and the hallmarks of cancer that may influence tumour development and progression.