Parenting during early adolescence and adolescent-onset major depression: a 6-year prospective longitudinal study

Orli Schwartz, Michelle L Byrne, Julian G Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Paul L Dudgeon, Marie B. H. Yap, Lisa B Sheeber, Nicholas Brian Allen

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In this study, we investigated the prospective relationship between maternal behaviors observed during mother-adolescent interactions and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) between early and late adolescence (ages 12-18). Maternal expressions of emotion and maternal responses to their child s expressions of emotion were both examined. Results demonstrated that higher rates of maternal aggressive behavior and lower rates of maternal positive behavior prospectively predicted MDD onset across adolescence. In addition, negative (i.e., aggressive and dysphoric) maternal responses to adolescents aggressive and positive behaviors predicted MDD onset. Maternal dysphoric behavior and the way mothers respond to adolescents dysphoria were not related to MDD onset. These results extend previous findings on the relationship between parenting behaviors and depression onset in early to midadolescence and suggest that maternal emotion socialization behaviors in early adolescence prospectively predict MDD onset across the entire course of adolescence
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-286
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Psychological Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • adolescent development
  • depression
  • social interaction
  • emotional
  • development

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