Paracetamol metabolite concentrations following low risk overdose treated with an abbreviated 12-h versus 20-h acetylcysteine infusion

Anselm Wong, Natalie Homer, James W. Dear, Kay Weng Choy, James Doery, Andis Graudins

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Abstract

Context: To compare degree of liver injury and paracetamol metabolite concentrations after treatment with standard of care (20-h) vs. abbreviated (12-h) acetylcysteine regimens used in paracetamol overdose (NACSTOP trial). Methods: Timed blood samples from a cohort of subjects enrolled in the cluster-controlled NACSTOP trial evaluating a 12-h acetylcysteine regimen (200 mg/kg over 4 h, 50 mg/kg over 8 h) were assayed for paracetamol metabolites as a pilot study, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Control group subjects received a 20-h course of acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg over 4 h, 100 mg/kg over 16 h). The intervention group received a 12-h acetylcysteine regimen (stopped after at least 12 h of treatment). Positive control groups not in the trial with acute liver injury (ALI) or hepatotoxicity were also studied. Results: One hundred and forty-one blood samples were collected from 40 patients receiving acetylcysteine after paracetamol overdose. Median ALT after 20 h of acetylcysteine was 12 U/L (IQR 8.14) in the abbreviated regimen group, compared to the control group 16 U/L (IQR 11.21) (p =.46). There was no significant difference in median metabolite concentrations on presentation and after 20 h of acetylcysteine between these two groups (p >.05). Presentation median sum CYP-metabolite/total metabolite percentages were 2.5 and 3.0 in the abbreviated and control NACSTOP groups, respectively. Conclusions: An abbreviated 12-h acetylcysteine regimen for paracetamol overdose used in the NACSTOP trial had similar circulating metabolite concentrations compared to a 20-h regimen in selected subjects with low risk of hepatotoxicity. This suggests that further acetylcysteine may not be needed in the abbreviated group at time of cessation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312–317
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Toxicology
Volume57
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2019

Keywords

  • Acetaminophen
  • NAC
  • poisoning

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