Panchromatic photoinitiators for radical, cationic and thiol-ene polymerization reactions: a search in the diketopyrrolopyrrole or indigo dye series

Jing Zhang, Nicolas Zivic, Frédéric Dumur, Chang Guo, Yuning Li, Pu Xiao, Bernadette Graff, Didier Gigmes, Jean Pierre Fouassier, Jacques Lalevée

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23 Citations (Scopus)


A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives (DPPs) and indigo derivatives (IDGs) are synthesized and applied as photoinitiators (PIs) for the cationic polymerization (CP) of epoxides, the free radical polymerization (FRP) of acrylates or the thiol-ene polymerization under different lights (purple, blue, green, yellow, red LEDs and green laser diode). The photochemical mechanisms involved in the presence of these PIs and additives (iodonium salt (Iod), N-vinylcarbazole (NVK), amine (MDEA) or 2,4,6- tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine (R-Cl)) are investigated by steady state photolysis, electron spin resonance spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and laser flash photolysis techniques. Real-time infrared spectroscopy studies reveal that DPP4/Iod/NVK is very efficient for both CP and FRP and, compared to two references (Eosin-Y and camphorquinone), displays noticeably higher polymerization efficiencies. Panchromatic curable formulations exhibiting an almost constant photosensitivity from the blue to the red are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-108
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Today Communications
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives
  • Indigo derivatives
  • Panchromatic films
  • Photoinitiator
  • Visible LED

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