Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa

Andrew I Herries, Peter Kappen, Anthony D T Kegley, David B Patterson, Daryl L Howard, Martin Daly de Jonge, Stephany Potze, Justin W Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates that Haasgat, a fossil-bearing palaeocave in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is dominated by reversed magnetic polarity in its oldest, deepest layers and normal polarity in the younger layers. The presence of in-situ Equus specimens suggests an age of less than 2.3 Ma, while morphological analysis of faunal specimens from the ex-situ assemblage suggests an age greater than 1.8 Ma. Given this faunal age constraint, the older reversed polarity sections most likely date to the beginning of the Matuyama Chron (2.58?1.95 Ma), while the younger normal polarity deposits likely date to the very beginning of the Olduvai Sub-Chron (1.95?1.78 Ma). The occurrence of a magnetic reversal from reversed to normal polarity recorded in the sequence indicates the deposits of the Bridge Section date to 1.95 Ma. All the in-situ fossil deposits that have been noted are older than the 1.95 Ma reversal, but younger than 2.3 Ma. Haasgat therefore dates to an interesting time period in South African human evolution that saw the last occurrence of two australopith species at 2.05?2.02 Ma (Sts5 Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4) to 1.98 Ma (Australopithecus sediba from Malapa) and the first occurrence of early Homo (Sk847), Paranthropus and the Oldowan within Swartkrans Member 1 between 2.0 Ma and 1.8 Ma.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20130102
Pages (from-to)1 - 12
Number of pages12
JournalSouth African Journal of Science
Volume110
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Cite this

Herries, A. I., Kappen, P., Kegley, A. D. T., Patterson, D. B., Howard, D. L., de Jonge, M. D., ... Adams, J. W. (2014). Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 110(3-4), 1 - 12. [20130102]. https://doi.org/10.1590/sajs.2014/20130102
Herries, Andrew I ; Kappen, Peter ; Kegley, Anthony D T ; Patterson, David B ; Howard, Daryl L ; de Jonge, Martin Daly ; Potze, Stephany ; Adams, Justin W. / Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa. In: South African Journal of Science. 2014 ; Vol. 110, No. 3-4. pp. 1 - 12.
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title = "Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa",
abstract = "Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates that Haasgat, a fossil-bearing palaeocave in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is dominated by reversed magnetic polarity in its oldest, deepest layers and normal polarity in the younger layers. The presence of in-situ Equus specimens suggests an age of less than 2.3 Ma, while morphological analysis of faunal specimens from the ex-situ assemblage suggests an age greater than 1.8 Ma. Given this faunal age constraint, the older reversed polarity sections most likely date to the beginning of the Matuyama Chron (2.58?1.95 Ma), while the younger normal polarity deposits likely date to the very beginning of the Olduvai Sub-Chron (1.95?1.78 Ma). The occurrence of a magnetic reversal from reversed to normal polarity recorded in the sequence indicates the deposits of the Bridge Section date to 1.95 Ma. All the in-situ fossil deposits that have been noted are older than the 1.95 Ma reversal, but younger than 2.3 Ma. Haasgat therefore dates to an interesting time period in South African human evolution that saw the last occurrence of two australopith species at 2.05?2.02 Ma (Sts5 Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4) to 1.98 Ma (Australopithecus sediba from Malapa) and the first occurrence of early Homo (Sk847), Paranthropus and the Oldowan within Swartkrans Member 1 between 2.0 Ma and 1.8 Ma.",
author = "Herries, {Andrew I} and Peter Kappen and Kegley, {Anthony D T} and Patterson, {David B} and Howard, {Daryl L} and {de Jonge}, {Martin Daly} and Stephany Potze and Adams, {Justin W}",
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Herries, AI, Kappen, P, Kegley, ADT, Patterson, DB, Howard, DL, de Jonge, MD, Potze, S & Adams, JW 2014, 'Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa', South African Journal of Science, vol. 110, no. 3-4, 20130102, pp. 1 - 12. https://doi.org/10.1590/sajs.2014/20130102

Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa. / Herries, Andrew I; Kappen, Peter; Kegley, Anthony D T; Patterson, David B; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin Daly; Potze, Stephany; Adams, Justin W.

In: South African Journal of Science, Vol. 110, No. 3-4, 20130102, 2014, p. 1 - 12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Palaeomagnetic and synchrotron analysis of >1.95 ma fossil-bearing palaeokarst at Haasgat, South Africa

AU - Herries, Andrew I

AU - Kappen, Peter

AU - Kegley, Anthony D T

AU - Patterson, David B

AU - Howard, Daryl L

AU - de Jonge, Martin Daly

AU - Potze, Stephany

AU - Adams, Justin W

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates that Haasgat, a fossil-bearing palaeocave in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is dominated by reversed magnetic polarity in its oldest, deepest layers and normal polarity in the younger layers. The presence of in-situ Equus specimens suggests an age of less than 2.3 Ma, while morphological analysis of faunal specimens from the ex-situ assemblage suggests an age greater than 1.8 Ma. Given this faunal age constraint, the older reversed polarity sections most likely date to the beginning of the Matuyama Chron (2.58?1.95 Ma), while the younger normal polarity deposits likely date to the very beginning of the Olduvai Sub-Chron (1.95?1.78 Ma). The occurrence of a magnetic reversal from reversed to normal polarity recorded in the sequence indicates the deposits of the Bridge Section date to 1.95 Ma. All the in-situ fossil deposits that have been noted are older than the 1.95 Ma reversal, but younger than 2.3 Ma. Haasgat therefore dates to an interesting time period in South African human evolution that saw the last occurrence of two australopith species at 2.05?2.02 Ma (Sts5 Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4) to 1.98 Ma (Australopithecus sediba from Malapa) and the first occurrence of early Homo (Sk847), Paranthropus and the Oldowan within Swartkrans Member 1 between 2.0 Ma and 1.8 Ma.

AB - Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates that Haasgat, a fossil-bearing palaeocave in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, is dominated by reversed magnetic polarity in its oldest, deepest layers and normal polarity in the younger layers. The presence of in-situ Equus specimens suggests an age of less than 2.3 Ma, while morphological analysis of faunal specimens from the ex-situ assemblage suggests an age greater than 1.8 Ma. Given this faunal age constraint, the older reversed polarity sections most likely date to the beginning of the Matuyama Chron (2.58?1.95 Ma), while the younger normal polarity deposits likely date to the very beginning of the Olduvai Sub-Chron (1.95?1.78 Ma). The occurrence of a magnetic reversal from reversed to normal polarity recorded in the sequence indicates the deposits of the Bridge Section date to 1.95 Ma. All the in-situ fossil deposits that have been noted are older than the 1.95 Ma reversal, but younger than 2.3 Ma. Haasgat therefore dates to an interesting time period in South African human evolution that saw the last occurrence of two australopith species at 2.05?2.02 Ma (Sts5 Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4) to 1.98 Ma (Australopithecus sediba from Malapa) and the first occurrence of early Homo (Sk847), Paranthropus and the Oldowan within Swartkrans Member 1 between 2.0 Ma and 1.8 Ma.

UR - http://www.sajs.co.za/sites/default/files/publications/pdf/Herries_Research%20Article.pdf

U2 - 10.1590/sajs.2014/20130102

DO - 10.1590/sajs.2014/20130102

M3 - Article

VL - 110

SP - 1

EP - 12

JO - South African Journal of Science

JF - South African Journal of Science

SN - 0038-2353

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