Pain, Anxiety, and Depression in the First Two Years Following Transport-Related Major Trauma: A Population-Based, Prospective Registry Cohort Study

Melita J. Giummarra, Pamela Simpson, Belinda J. Gabbe

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17 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the population prevalence of pain and mental health problems postinjury and to identify risk factors that could improve service delivery to optimize recovery of at-risk patients. METHODS: This population-based registry cohort study included 5,350 adult survivors of transport-related major trauma injuries from the Victorian State Trauma Registry. Outcome profiles were generated separately for pain and mental health outcomes using the "pain or discomfort" and "anxiety or depression" items of the EuroQol Five Dimensions Three-Level questionnaire at six, 12, and 24 months postinjury. Profiles were "resilient" (no problems at every follow-up), "recovered" (problems at six- and/or 12-month follow-up that later resolved), "worsening" (problems at 12 and/or 24 months after no problems at six and/or 12 months), and "persistent" (problems at every follow-up). RESULTS: Most participants had persistent (pain/discomfort, N = 2,171, 39.7%; anxiety/depression, N = 1,428, 26.2%) and resilient profiles (pain/discomfort, N = 1,220, 22.3%; anxiety/depression, N = 2,055, 37.7%), followed by recovered (pain/discomfort, N = 1,116, 20.4%; anxiety/depression, N = 1,025, 18.8%) and worsening profiles (pain/discomfort, N = 956, 17.5%; anxiety/depression, N = 948, 17.4%). Adjusted multinomial logistic regressions showed increased risk of problems (persistent, worsening, or resolved) vs no problems (resilient) in relation to female sex, middle age, neighborhood disadvantage, pre-injury unemployment, pre-injury disability, and spinal cord injury. People living in rural areas, motorcyclists, pedal cyclists, and people with head, chest, and abdominal injuries had lower risk of problems. DISCUSSION: Targeted interventions delivered to people with the risk factors identified may help to attenuate the severity and impact of pain and mental health problems after transport injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-307
Number of pages17
JournalPain Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Injury
  • Motor Vehicle
  • Prognostic
  • Recovery
  • Trauma

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