Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, is effective in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer, but therapeutic resistance is common. Pure steroidal antiestrogens are efficacious in tamoxifen-resistant disease and, unlike tamoxifen, arrest cells in a state of quiescence from which they cannot reenter the cell cycle after growth factor stimulation. We now show that in hydroxytamoxifen-treated cells, transduction of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 induces quiescence and insensitivity to growth stimulation by insulin/insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor/transforming growth factor α. Furthermore, reinitiation of cell cycle progression by insulin/insulin-like growth factor I in hydroxytamoxifen-arrested cells involves dissociation of the corepressors nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) from nuclear estrogen receptor α and redistribution to the cytoplasm, a process that is inhibited by mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but not phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase, inhibitors. These data suggest that agents that up-regulate p27Kip1 or inhibit growth factor signaling via the extracellular signal-regulated kinases should be tested as therapeutic strategies in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.
|Number of pages||5|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2003|