The kidneys are unique in that oxygen delivery far outweighs metabolic demand. As a result, renal O2 extraction is normally low (~15 % compared with ~35–40 % in most tissues), and tissue O2 tension is relatively high, particularly within the highly perfused renal cortical region. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in normal cellular function, and excess production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) can lead to the development of disease. It is well established that the rate of production of reactive oxygen species varies with O2 tension. In this chapter, we review the known molecular sources of reactive oxygen species within the kidney and their dependence on O2 tension. Included in this discussion, we will review the unique physiology of the kidney and how this affects renal O2 tension and the production of reactive oxygen species. We will also review the pathophysiological relationship between the development of renal hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species within the kidney.
|Title of host publication||Systems Biology of Free Radicals and Antioxidants|
|Place of Publication||Berlin Germany|
|Number of pages||18|
|ISBN (Print)||978-3-642-30019-6, 978-3-642-30017-2|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Reactive oxygen species