The oxygen evolution reaction involves complex interplay among electrolyte, solid catalyst, and gas-phase and liquid-phase reactants and products. Monitoring catalysis interfaces between catalyst and electrolyte can provide valuable insights into catalytic ability. But it is a challenging task due to the additive solid supports in traditional measurement. Here we design a nanodevice platform and combine on-chip electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, temporary I-V measurement of an individual nanosheet, and molecular dynamic calculations to provide a direct way for nanoscale catalytic diagnosis. By removing O2 in electrolyte, a dramatic decrease in Tafel slope of over 20% and early onset potential of 1.344 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode are achieved. Our studies reveal that O2 reduces hydroxyl ion density at catalyst interface, resulting in poor kinetics and negative catalytic performance. The obtained in-depth understanding could provide valuable clues for catalysis system design. Our method could also be useful to analyze other catalytic processes.