Oxidative tailoring reactions catalyzed by nonheme iron-dependent enzymes: Streptorubin B biosynthesis as an example

Paulina K. Sydor, Gregory L. Challis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Tailoring enzymes catalyze reactions that modify natural product backbone structures before, during, or after their biosynthesis to create a final product with specific biological activities. Such reactions can be catalyzed by a myriad of different enzyme families and are responsible for a wide variety of transformations including regio- and/or stereospecific acylation, alkylation, glycosylation, halogenation, and oxidation. Within a broad group of oxidative tailoring enzymes, there is a rapidly growing family of nonheme iron- and oxygen-dependent enzymes that catalyze a variety of remarkable hydroxylation, desaturation, halogenation, and oxidative cyclization reaction in the biosynthesis of several important metabolites, including carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosporins, clavams, prodiginines, fosfomycin, syringomycin, and coronatine. In this chapter, we report an expedient method for analyzing tailoring enzymes that catalyze oxidative cyclization reactions in prodiginine biosynthesis via expression of the corresponding genes in a heterologous host, feeding of putative biosynthetic intermediates to the resulting strains, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the metabolites produced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-218
Number of pages24
JournalMethods in Enzymology
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic
  • CH functionalization
  • Chlorination
  • Desaturation
  • Heterologous expression
  • Hydroxylation
  • Oxidative cyclization
  • Streptomyces

Cite this