Oxidative stress in the hypothalamus: the importance of calcium signaling and mitochondrial ROS in body weight regulation

Erika Gyengesi, George Paxinos, Zane Bruce Andrews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: A considerable amount of evidence shows that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mammalian brain are directly responsible for cell and tissue function and dysfunction. Excessive reactive oxygen species contribute to various conditions including inflammation, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation, and mental disorders such as depression. Increased intracellular calcium levels have toxic roles leading to cell death. However, the exact connection between reactive oxygen production and high calcium stress is not yet fully understood. In this review, we focus on the role of reactive oxygen species and calcium stress in hypothalamic arcuate neurons controlling feeding. We revisit the role of NPY and POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis, and consider how ROS and intracellular calcium levels affect these neurons. These novel nsights give a new direction to research on hypothalamic mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis and may offer novel treatment strategies for obesity and type-2 diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)344 - 353
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Neuropharmacology
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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