Oxidative stress and inflammation in renal and cardiovascular complications of diabetes

Amelia Charlton, Jessica Garzarella, Karin A.M. Jandeleit-Dahm, Jay C. Jha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation are considered major drivers in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including renal and cardiovascular disease. A symbiotic relationship also appears to exist between oxidative stress and inflammation. Several emerging therapies target these crucial pathways, to alleviate the burden of the aforementioned diseases. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses, a pathological state which not only leads to direct cellular damage but also an inflammatory cascade that further perpetuates tissue injury. Emerging therapeutic strategies tackle these pathways in a variety of ways, from increasing antioxidant defenses (antioxidants and Nrf2 activators) to reducing ROS production (NADPH oxidase inhibitors and XO inhibitors) or inhibiting the associated inflammatory pathways (NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors, lipoxins, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and AT-1 receptor antagonists). This review summarizes the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to and perpetuate diabetes associated renal and cardiovascular disease along with the therapeutic strategies which target these pathways to provide reno and cardiovascular protection in the setting of diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18
Number of pages18
JournalBiology
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic complications
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Inflammation
  • Reactive oxygen species

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