Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic used for cancer treatment. Its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and chronic gastrointestinal side-effects. Oxaliplatin induces immunogenic cell death by provoking the presentation of damage associated molecular patterns. The damage associated molecular patterns high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein exerts pro-inflammatory cytokine-like activity and binds to toll-like receptors (namely TLR4). Gastrointestinal microbiota may influence chemotherapeutic efficacy and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We studied effects of oxaliplatin treatment on 1) TLR4 and high-mobility group box 1 expression within the colon; 2) gastrointestinal microbiota composition; 3) inflammation within the colon; 4) changes in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes immune populations in mice. TLR4+ cells displayed pseudopodia- like extensions characteristic of antigen sampling co-localised with high-mobility group box 1 -overexpressing cells in the colonic lamina propria from oxaliplatin-treated animals. Oxaliplatin treatment caused significant reduction in Parabacteroides and Prevotella1, but increase in Prevotella2 and Odoribacter bacteria at the genus level. Downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in colon samples, a reduction in macrophages and dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes were found after oxaliplatin treatment. In conclusion, oxaliplatin treatment caused morphological changes in TLR4+ cells, increase in gramnegative microbiota and enhanced HMGB1 expression associated with immunosuppression in the colon.