Outsourcing ethical dilemmas: regulating international surrogacy arrangements

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21 Citations (Scopus)


This article argues that the English legislative regime is ineffective in regulating international surrogacy, particularly with regard to commercial payments. It suggests that if English law views surrogacy as exploitative, we have a responsibility to protect women both in England and abroad, and the only way to do so effectively is to create a domestic system of regulation that caters adequately for the demand in this country. This requires a system of authorisation for surrogacy before it is undertaken; ex-post facto examinations of agreements completed in other jurisdictions, after the child is already living with the commissioning parents, cannot be seen as an acceptable compromise, as authorisation will inevitably be granted in the child's best interests.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-75
Number of pages17
JournalMedical Law Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Best interests of the child
  • Human fertilisation and embryology act 2008
  • International surrogacy
  • Medical tourism

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