BACKGROUND: The integrated home dialysis model involving initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) first followed by home haemodialysis (HHD) has previously been proposed as an optimal form of dialysis that maximizes the advantages of both modalities. While this model has great potential, its clinical outcomes, especially compared with direct HHD initiation, remain uncertain. METHODS: All incident home dialysis patients from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) registry between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score matching was performed to evaluate patients initially treated with PD followed by HHD ( PD + HHD ), PD without subsequent transition to HHD ( PD only ) and HHD without subsequent transition to PD ( HHD only ). The composite primary outcome was death and home dialysis technique failure (defined as transfer to facility haemodialysis for 90 days). Groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The 2:1 matched cohort included 84 patients in the PD + HHD group, 168 patients in the HHD only group and 168 patients in the PD only group. Compared with the PD + HHD group, death and home dialysis technique failure was similar for patients treated with HHD only [hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.62; P = 0.77] and higher for those treated with PD only (HR 3.22, 95 CI 1.97-5.25; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients treated with PD first followed by HHD had a risk of death and home dialysis technique failure that was comparable to those treated with HHD as the only home dialysis modality and inferior to those treated with PD as the only home dialysis modality. These results support the integrated home dialysis model in patients who initiate dialysis with PD.