Outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with different oral anticoagulants

Duncan Wilson, David J. Seiffge, Christopher Traenka, Ghazala Basir, Jan C. Purrucker, Timolaos Rizos, Oluwaseun A. Sobowale, Hanne Sallinen, Shin Joe Yeh, Teddy Y. Wu, Marc Ferrigno, Rik Houben, Floris H.B.M. Schreuder, Luke A. Perry, Jun Tanaka, Marion Boulanger, Rustam Al Shahi Salman, Hans R. Jäger, Gareth Ambler, Clare ShakeshaftYusuke Yakushiji, Philip M.C. Choi, Julie Staals, Charlotte Cordonnier, Jiann Shing Jeng, Roland Veltkamp, Dar Dowlatshahi, Stefan T. Engelter, Adrian R. Parry-Jones, Atte Meretoja, David J. Werring

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93 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: In an international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, we compared mortality, functional outcome, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, and hematoma expansion (HE) between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation-related ICH (NOAC-ICH) and vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH (VKA-ICH). Methods: We compared all-cause mortality within 90 days for NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age; sex; baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, ICH location, and log volume; intraventricular hemorrhage volume; and intracranial surgery. We addressed heterogeneity using a shared frailty term. Good functional outcome was defined as discharge modified Rankin Scale score #2 and investigated in multivariable logistic regression. ICH volume was measured by ABC/2 or a semiautomated planimetric method. HE was defined as an ICH volume increase .33% or .6 mL from baseline within 72 hours. Results: We included 500 patients (97 NOAC-ICH and 403 VKA-ICH). Median baseline ICH volume was 14.4 mL (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-38.4) for NOAC-ICH vs 10.6 mL (IQR 4.0-27.9) for VKAICH (p 5 0.78). We did not find any difference between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH for all-cause mortality within 90 days (33%for NOAC-ICH vs 31% for VKA-ICH [p 5 0.64]; adjusted Cox hazard ratio (for NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH) 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.64] [p 5 0.79]), the rate of HE (NOAC-ICH n 5 29/48 [40%] vs VKA-ICH n 5 93/140 [34%] [p 5 0.45]), or functional outcome at hospital discharge (NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.18-1.19 [p 5 0.11]). Conclusions: In our international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, baseline ICH volume, hematoma expansion, 90-day mortality, and functional outcome were similar following NOACICH and VKA-ICH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1693-1700
Number of pages8
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2017
Externally publishedYes

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