The γδ T cell immune cell lineage has remained relatively enigmatic and under-characterised since their identification. Conversely, the insights we have, highlight their central importance in diverse immunological roles and homeostasis. Thus, γδ T cells are considered as potentially a new translational tool in the design of new therapeutics for cancer and infectious disease. Here we review our current understanding of γδ T cell biology viewed through a structural lens centred on the how the γδ T cell receptor mediates ligand recognition. We discuss the limited knowledge of antigens, the structural basis of such reactivities and discuss the emerging trends of γδ T cell reactivity and implications for γδ T cell biology.