Orf virus encodes a range of immuno-modulatory genes that interfere with host anti-virus immune and inflammatory effector mechanisms. The function of these reflects the pathogenesis of orf. The orf virus interferon resistance protein (OVIFNR) and virus IL-10 (vIL-10) inhibit interferon production and activity. In addition the vIL-10 suppresses inflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages and keratinocytes. The virus GM-CSF inhibitory factor (GIF) is a novel virus protein that binds to and inhibits the biological activity of GM-CSF and IL-2. Together, these immuno-modulators target key effector mechanisms of host anti-virus immunity to allow time for virus replication in epidermal cells.