Orf virus immuno-modulation and the host immune response

David M. Haig, Jackie Thomson, Colin McInnes, Catherine McCaughan, Wendy Imlach, Andrew Mercer, Stephen Fleming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Orf virus encodes a range of immuno-modulatory genes that interfere with host anti-virus immune and inflammatory effector mechanisms. The function of these reflects the pathogenesis of orf. The orf virus interferon resistance protein (OVIFNR) and virus IL-10 (vIL-10) inhibit interferon production and activity. In addition the vIL-10 suppresses inflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages and keratinocytes. The virus GM-CSF inhibitory factor (GIF) is a novel virus protein that binds to and inhibits the biological activity of GM-CSF and IL-2. Together, these immuno-modulators target key effector mechanisms of host anti-virus immunity to allow time for virus replication in epidermal cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-399
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Interleukin-10
  • Poxvirus
  • Sheep

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