Optimization strategies for radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto poly(ethylene-co-tetraflouroethene) film using Box-Behnken design

Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef, Ezzatollah Shamsaei, Payman Ghassemi, Amgad Ahmed Aly, Abdul Hamid Yahaya

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The radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethene) (ETFE) was optimized using the Box-Behnken factorial design available in the response surface method (RSM). The optimized grafting parameters; absorbed dose, monomer concentration, grafting time and reaction temperature were varied in four levels to quantify their effect on the grafting yield (GY). The validity of the statistical model was supported by the small deviation between the predicted (GY=61%) and experimental (GY=57%) values. The optimum conditions for enhancing. GY were determined at the following values: monomer concentration of 48. vol%, absorbed dose of 64. kGy, reaction time of 4. h and temperature of 68. °C. A comparison was made between the optimization model developed for the present grafting system and that for grafting of 1-vinylimidazole (1-VIm) onto ETFE to confirm the validly and reliability of the Box-Behnken for the optimization of various radiation induced grafting reactions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the properties of the obtained films and provide evidence for grafting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-444
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • 4-vinylpyridine
  • Box-Behnken factorial design
  • Poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) optimization of grafting parameters
  • Radiation induced grafting

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