Battery swapping stations (BSSs) present an alternative way of charging electric vehicles (EVs) that can lead toward a sustainable EV ecosystem. Although research focusing on the BSS strategies has been ongoing, the results are fragmented. Currently, an integrated way of considering stochastic EV station visits through planning and operations has not been fully investigated. To create comprehensive and resilient battery swapping stations, a two-stage optimization with recourse is proposed. In the planning stage, the investment for battery purchases is recommended even before the EV station visit uncertainties are made known. In the operation stage, the battery allocation decisions, such as charging, discharging, and swapping are then coordinated. To apply the recourse strategy in creating representative scenarios, the EV station visit distribution techniques are also proposed using a modified K-means clustering method. Aside from the sensitivity analysis made with swapping prices and charging intervals, the strategy comparisons with conventional strategies have also demonstrated the practicality of the BSS coordination to future electricity and transportation networks.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2020|
- battery swapping stations (BSSs)
- Electric vehicles
- optimization with recourse