Optimal recourse strategy for battery swapping stations considering electric vehicle uncertainty

William Infante, Jin Ma, Xiaoqing Han, Ariel Liebman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Battery swapping stations (BSSs) present an alternative way of charging electric vehicles (EVs) that can lead toward a sustainable EV ecosystem. Although research focusing on the BSS strategies has been ongoing, the results are fragmented. Currently, an integrated way of considering stochastic EV station visits through planning and operations has not been fully investigated. To create comprehensive and resilient battery swapping stations, a two-stage optimization with recourse is proposed. In the planning stage, the investment for battery purchases is recommended even before the EV station visit uncertainties are made known. In the operation stage, the battery allocation decisions, such as charging, discharging, and swapping are then coordinated. To apply the recourse strategy in creating representative scenarios, the EV station visit distribution techniques are also proposed using a modified K-means clustering method. Aside from the sensitivity analysis made with swapping prices and charging intervals, the strategy comparisons with conventional strategies have also demonstrated the practicality of the BSS coordination to future electricity and transportation networks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8684280
Pages (from-to)1369-1379
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • battery swapping stations (BSSs)
  • Electric vehicles
  • optimization with recourse

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