Open problems in artificial life

Mark A. Bedau, John S. McCaskill, Norman H. Packard, Steen Rasmussen, Chris Adami, David G. Green, Takashi Ikegami, Kunihiko Kaneko, Thomas S. Ray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

156 Citations (Scopus)


This article lists fourteen open problems in artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-376
Number of pages14
JournalArtificial Life
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial chemistry
  • Artificial life
  • Astrobiology
  • Autopoeisis
  • Biosystems
  • Digital life
  • Dynamical hierarchies
  • Ecosystems
  • Emergence
  • Evolution
  • Evolutionary learning
  • Evolvable hardware
  • Origin of life
  • Selection
  • Self-organization
  • Self-replication
  • Simulation

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