This article presents a case study on roles of online communities in development and commercialization of Chinese Internet literature (CIL). Online communities are widely used in ethnic Chinese communities for publication of CIL works. Uses of online communities in publication of CIL works enhance authors and readers experience and facilitate the growth of the CIL market. In turn, the growth of the CIL market creates new business opportunities that eventually lead to CIL commercialization. Evidences from the case show that the roles of online communities on CIL commercialization are much larger than simply being a new product development platform.