On the methods to measure powder flow

Geoffrey Tan, David A V Morton, Ian Larson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependant nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5751-5765
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Pharmaceutical Design
Issue number40
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Angle of repose
  • Carr index
  • Flow through an orifice
  • Hausner ratio
  • Powder avalanche
  • Powder flow
  • Powder rheometer
  • Shear cell

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