There is evidence of support for nurse practitioner (NP) roles in national and international literature. However, despite this, and numerous Australian government feasibility and evaluation studies, barriers to implementing NP roles in mainstream health care and developing them to their full potential remain. A study was undertaken to explore nurse practitioners?, managers? and nurse policymakers? perceptions of the roles in general, and this article reports on the findings from the initial survey phase. The article also discusses barriers to full integration and development of NPs.