Numerical simulation of the interaction between supersonic oxygen jets and molten slag-metal bath in steelmaking BOF process

Qiang Li, Mingming Li, Shibo Kuang, Zongshu Zou

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The impinging of multiple jets onto the molten bath in the BOF steelmaking process plays a crucial role in reactor performance but is not clearly understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the multiple jets and slag?metal bath in a BOF by means of the three-phase volume of fluid model. The validity of the model is first examined by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurement of time-averaged cavity dimensions through a scaled-down water model. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. The mathematical model is then used to investigate the primary transport phenomena of the jets-bath interaction inside a 150-ton commercial BOF under steelmaking conditions. The numerical results show that the cavity profile and interface of slag/metal/gas remain unstable as a result of the propagation of surface waves, which, likely as a major factor, governs the generation of metal droplets and their initial spatiotemporal distribution. The total momentum transferred from the jets into the bath is consumed about a half to drive the movement of slag, rather than fully converted as the stirring power for the metal bath. Finally, the effects of operational conditions and fluid properties are quantified. It is shown that compared to viscosity and surface tension of the melts, operating pressure and lance height have a much more significant impact on the slag?metal interface behavior and cavity shape as well as the fluid dynamics in the molten bath.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1494-1509
Number of pages16
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

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