Numerical investigation of burden distribution in a blast furnace

Sida S Liu, Zongyan Zhou, Kejun J Dong, Aibing Yu, David Pinson, John Tsalapatis

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30 Citations (Scopus)


Burden distribution plays an important role in achieving stable and efficient operation in a modern ironmaking blast furnace. In this process, burden materials are charged and distributed to the throat region, and further affect gas distribution and blast furnace performance. In this work, a model based on discrete element method is established. In particular, the surface properties of spherical particles are first justified in terms of angle of repose aiming to reflect the effect of particle shape. The proper values of sliding friction and rolling friction coefficients for different burden materials are then recommended. Burden trajectories from the rotating chute and burden layers formed at the throat region are compared with physical experiments, showing consistent results. The effects of some key variables such as chute angle and friction coefficients are also examined. The results indicate that burden trajectories are not sensitive to sliding and rolling friction coefficients. But those variables should be properly set to obtain reasonable burden layer profiles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651 - 661
Number of pages11
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015


  • Blast furnace
  • Bell-less top
  • Burden distribution
  • Discrete element method

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