Virulent Helicobacter pylori strains that specifically activate signaling in epithelial cells via the innate immune molecule, nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), are more frequently associated with IFN-gamma-dependent inflammation and with severe clinical outcomes (i.e., gastric cancer and peptic ulceration). In cell culture models, we showed that H. pylori activation of the NOD1 pathway caused enhanced proinflammatory signaling in epithelial cells in response to IFN-gamma stimulation through the direct effects of H. pylori on two components of the IFN-gamma signaling pathway, STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). Specifically, H. pylori activation of the NOD1 pathway was shown to increase the levels of STAT1-Tyr(701)/Ser(727) phosphorylation and IRF1 expression/synthesis in cells, resulting in enhanced production of the NOD1- and IFN-gamma-regulated chemokines, IL-8- and IFN-gamma-induced protein 10, respectively. Consistent with the notion that heightened proinflammatory signaling in epithelial cells may have an impact on disease severity, we observed significantly increased expression levels of NOD1, CXCL8, IRF1, and CXCL10 in human gastric biopsies displaying severe gastritis, when compared with those without gastritis (p <0.05, p <0.001, p <0.01, and p <0.05, respectively). Interestingly, NOD1, CXCL8, and IRF1 expression levels were also significantly upregulated in gastric tumor tissues, when compared with paired nontumor samples (p <0.0001, p <0.05, and p <0.05, respectively). Thus, we propose that cross-talk between NOD1 and IFN-gamma signaling pathways contribute to H. pylori-induced inflammatory responses, potentially revealing a novel mechanism whereby virulent H. pylori strains promote more severe disease.