|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of Life Sciences|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 16 Jun 2014|
Protein synthesis takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm, meaning that proteins that are needed in the nuclear compartment, such as those that control gene transcription, have to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Analysis of the regulation of nuclear import, which is central to cell responses to signalling pathways, and stress responses such as viral infection, requires dynamic experimental systems able to provide quantitative kinetic information. This article describes an in vitro reconstituted system as well as quantitative live cell imaging approaches, including the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, that enable the rate and extent of nuclear import to be quantitatively determined, and assist mechanistic studies with respect to the nuclear transporters and targeting signals involved. This is critical to a full understanding of the importance of nuclear trafficking in biological systems.