Darwin's naturalization hypothesis predicts that the success of alien invaders will decrease with increasing taxonomic similarity to the native community. Alternatively, shared traits between aliens and the native assemblage may preadapt aliens to their novel surroundings, thereby facilitating establishment (the preadaptation hypothesis). Here we examine successful and failed introductions of amphibian species across the globe and find that the probability of successful establishment is higher when congeneric species are present at introduction locations and increases with increasing congener species richness. After accounting for positive effects of congeners, residence time, and propagule pressure, we also find that invader establishment success is higher on islands than on mainland areas and is higher in areas with abiotic conditions similar to the native range. These findings represent the first example in which the preadaptation hypothesis is supported in organisms other than plants and suggest that preadaptation has played a critical role in enabling introduced species to succeed in novel environments.
- Abiotic-suitability hypothesis
- Alien species
- Climate match
- Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
- Invasive species
- Preadaptation hypothesis