Norms and the effects of demographic variables on a neuropsychological battery for use in healthy ageing Australian populations

Alexander Collie, Ruxsana Shafiq-Antonacci, Paul Maruff, Peter Tyler, Jon Currie

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79 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The current study examined the performance of a healthy ageing population on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery in order to determine norms for use in an Australian setting. The effects of age, education, gender and mood on cognitive performance in healthy older individuals were also explored. Method: The CERAD neuropsychological battery was administered to a sample of healthy elderly subjects (n = 243). Subjects also completed an anxiety inventory and a depression scale. Means and standard deviations of different age, gender and education groups are reported as normative data. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was also calculated. Linear regression was applied to the five factors extracted from the PCA using age, education, gender and mood as independent variables. Results: All recorded means were within 1 SD of those reported in the original CERAD normative study. Five factors that loaded on measures of memory and learning, language, praxis and executive function were extracted. The independent variables age, education and gender all had significant effects on cognitive performance. However, mood had no such effect. Conclusions: Risk factors for cognitive decline indicated by the CERAD battery include age, education and gender. Anxiety and depression are not associated with CERAD cognitive performance. The CERAD battery is a valid and reliable neuropsychological tool that may assist in the detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in Australian populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)568-575
Number of pages8
JournalAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Aging
  • Education
  • Gender
  • Mood

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