Non-revenue water in Malaysia: influence of water distribution pipe types

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Reducing non-revenue water (NRW) within a water distribution network may lead to significant water savings. Most existing literature tend to focus on the design and implementation aspects of NRW loss through better management of leaks, reservoir overflow, and water theft. In contrast, this paper examines the association between the various water pipe types and their respective impact on NRW loss in an emerging country. Malaysia is currently listed under emerging and developing economies category in the International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook Database (October 2020). A correlation analysis is carried out using historical data obtained from the Malaysian water authority, covering fiscal years 2013 to 2017 (inclusive of both years). Further analysis is carried out by measuring the number of cases reported for two selected states in relation to the type of pipe materials used. Results show that there is a significant correlation between mild steel and polyethylene pipes to NRW loss. This study provides a better understanding of how water pipe types affect NRW loss, which is pertinent to developing best practices in the marketplace to manage NRW loss and protect water resources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2310
Number of pages16
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2021


  • Multiple linear regression
  • Non-revenue water
  • Types of water pipes
  • Water distribution system

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