Since core-collapse supernova simulations still struggle to produce robust neutrino-driven explosions in 3D, it has been proposed that asphericities caused by convection in the progenitor might facilitate shock revival by boosting the activity of non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities in the post-shock region. We investigate this scenario in depth using 42 relativistic 2D simulations with multigroup neutrino transport to examine the effects of velocity and density perturbations in the progenitor for different perturbation geometries that obey fundamental physical constraints (like the anelastic condition). As a framework for analysing our results, we introduce semi-empirical scaling laws relating neutrino heating, average turbulent velocities in the gain region, and the shock deformation in the saturation limit of non-radial instabilities. The squared turbulent Mach number, 〈Ma2〉, reflects the violence of aspherical motions in the gain layer, and explosive runaway occurs for 〈Ma2〉 ≳ 0.3, corresponding to a reduction of the critical neutrino luminosity by ~25 per cent compared to 1D. In the light of this theory, progenitor asphericities aid shock revival mainly by creating anisotropic mass flux on to the shock: differential infall efficiently converts velocity perturbations in the progenitor into density perturbations δρ/ρ at the shock of the order of the initial convectiveMach number Maprog. The anisotropic mass flux and ram pressure deform the shock and thereby amplify post-shock turbulence. Large-scale (ℓ= 2, ℓ= 1) modes prove most conducive to shock revival, whereas small-scale perturbations require unrealistically high convective Mach numbers. Initial density perturbations in the progenitor are only of the order of Maprog 2 and therefore play a subdominant role.
- Radiative transfer
- Supernovae: general