Non-invasive estimation of cardiac index in healthy volunteers

C. T. Eyeington, P. Ancona, L. Cioccari, N. Luethi, N. J. Glassford, G. M. Eastwood, H. K. Proimos, F. Franceschi, M. J. Chan, D. Jones, R. Bellomo

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The primary objective was to non-invasively measure the cardiac index (CI) and associated haemodynamic parameters of healthy volunteers and their changes with age. This was a single centre, prospective, observational study of healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years, using the ClearSight™ (Edwards Life Sciences, Irvine, CA, USA) device. We recorded 514 observations in 97 participants. The mean CI was 3.5 l/min/m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.4 to 3.7 l/min/m2). The mean stroke volume index (SVI) was 47 ml/m2 (95% CI 45 to 49 ml/m2) and the mean systemic vascular resistance index was 2,242 dyne.s/cm5/m2 (95% CI 2,124 to 2,365 dyne.s/cm5/m2). There was an inverse linear relationship between increasing age and CI (P <0.0001), which decreased by 0.044 l/min/m2 (95% CI  -0.032 to -0.056 l/min/m2) per year. This change was mostly due to a decrease in SVI of 0.45 ml/m2 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.57 ml/m2) per year (P <0.0001). The mean CI of young healthy humans is approximately 3.5 l/min/m2 and declines by approximately 40 ml/min/m2 per year, mostly due to a decline in stroke volume (SV). These findings have significant implications regarding the clinical interpretation of haemodynamic parameters and the application of these results to individual patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-296
Number of pages7
JournalAnaesthesia and Intensive Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiac index
  • cardiac output
  • haemodynamic monitoring
  • healthy volunteers
  • non-invasive
  • stroke volume

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