Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application: An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee

P. M. Rossini, Frank D Burke, R. Chen, L. G. Cohen, Zafiris Daskalakis, R. Di Iorio, V. Di Lazzaro, F. Ferreri, P. B. Fitzgerald, M. S. George, M. Hallett, J. P. Lefaucheur, B. Langguth, H. Matsumoto, C. Miniussi, M. A. Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter Paulus, S. Rossi, J. C. RothwellH. R. Siebner, Y. Ugawa, Victoria Morphy Walsh, Ulf Ziemann

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1146 Citations (Scopus)


These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (. Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience.Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (. Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (. Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (. Lefaucheur et al., 2014).This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1107
Number of pages37
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015


  • Clinical neurophysiology
  • Excitability threshold
  • Human cortex
  • Non-invasive stimulation
  • TMS measures
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation

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