During the past 20 years, non-invasive brain stimulation has become an emerging field in clinical neuroscience due to its capability to transiently modulate corticospinal excitability, motor and cognitive functions. Whereas transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used extensively since more than two decades ago as a potential neuromodulator , transcranial current stimulation (tCS) has more recently gathered increased scientific interests. The primary aim of this narrative review is to describe characteristics of different tCS paradigms. tCS is an umbrella term for a number of brain modulating paradigms such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Their efficacy is dependent on two current parameters: intensity and length of application. Unlike tACS and tRNS, tDCS is polarity dependent.These techniques could be used as stand-alone techniques or can be used to prime the effects of other movement trainings. The review also summarises safety issues, the mechanisms of tDCS-induced neuroplasticity, limitations of current state of knowledge in the literature, tool that could be used to understand brain plasticity effects in motor regions and tool that could be used to understand motor learning effects.
|Pages (from-to)||75 - 83|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Basic and Clinical Neuroscience|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|