The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are one of the most promising resources for the production of new bioactive molecules. The mechanism of NRPS catalysis is based around sequential catalytic domains: these are organized into modules, where each module selects, modifies, and incorporates an amino acid into the growing peptide. The intermediates formed during NRPS catalysis are delivered between enzyme centers by peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains, which makes PCP interactions and movements crucial to NRPS mechanism. PCP movement has been linked to the domain alternation cycle of adenylation (A) domains, and recent complete NRPS module structures provide support for this hypothesis. However, it appears as though the A domain alternation alone is insufficient to account for the complete NRPS catalytic cycle and that the loaded state of the PCP must also play a role in choreographing catalysis in these complex and fascinating molecular machines.
- nonribosomal peptide synthetases
- peptidyl carrier protein
- protein structures