New semiphysiological absorption model to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of cefuroxime axetil using nonparametric and parametric population pharmacokinetics

Jurgen Bulitta, Cornelia Landersdorfer, Martina Kinzig, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Fritz Sorgel

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Cefuroxime axetil is widely used to treat respiratory tract infections. We are not aware of a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for cefuroxime axetil. Our objectives were to develop a semiphysiological population PK model and evaluate the pharmacodynamic profile for cefuroxime axetil. Twenty-four healthy volunteers received 250 mg oral cefuroxime as a suspension after a standardized breakfast. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for drug analysis, NONMEM and S-ADAPT (results reported) were used for parametric population PK modeling, and NPAG was used for nonparametric population PK modeling. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the duration for which the non-protein-bound-plasma concentration was above the MIC (fT>MIC). A model with one disposition compartment, a saturable and time-dependent drug release from the stomach, and fast drug absorption from the intestine yielded precise (r > 0.992) and unbiased curve fits and an excellent predictive performance. The apparent clearance was 21.7 liters/h (19.8 coefficient of variation [CV]) and the volume of distribution 38.7 liters (18.3 CV). Robust (a?Y90 ) probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) were achieved by 250 mg cefuroxime given every 12 h (q12h) or q8h for MICs of 0.375 mg/liter or 0.5 mg/liter, respectively, for the bacteriostasis target fT>MIC of Y40 and for MICs of 0.094 mg/liter or 0.375 mg/liter, respectively, for the near-maximal-killing target fT>MIC of Y65 . For the Y40 fT>MIC target, the PTAs for 250 mg cefuroxime q12h were Y97.8 for Streptococcus pyogenes and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cefuroxime at 250 mg q12h or q8h achieved PTAs below 73 or 92 , respectively, for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae for susceptibility data from various countries. Depending on the MIC distribution, 250 mg oral cefuroxime q8h instead of q12h should be considered, especially for more-severe infections that require near-maximal killing by cefuroxime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3462 - 3471
Number of pages10
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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