Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine condition in reproductive-aged women. It is characterized by reproductive, endocrine, metabolic, and psychological features. The cause of PCOS is unknown, thus there is no cure and its management remains suboptimal because it relies on the ad hoc empirical management of symptoms only. We review here the strong support for PCOS having a neuroendocrine origin. In particular, we focus on the role of aberrant hypothalamic–pituitary function and associated hyperandrogenism, and their role as major drivers of the mechanisms underpinning the development of PCOS. This important information now provides a target site and a potential mechanism for the future development of novel, targeted, and mechanism-based effective therapies for the treatment of PCOS.
- androgen receptor
- polycystic ovary syndrome