New drugs creating new challenges in acute myeloid leukemia

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12 Citations (Scopus)


The therapeutic landscape is rapidly changing, with eight new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration within the last 2 years, including midostaurin and gilteritinib for FLT3 mutant newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), respectively; CPX-351 (liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin) for therapy-related AML and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes; gemtuzumab ozogamicin (anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody conjugated with calicheamicin) for newly diagnosed and R/R CD33-positive AML; enasidenib and ivosidenib for IDH2 and IDH1 mutant R/R AML, respectively. Novel therapies have also emerged for newly diagnosed AML in adults who are age 75 years or older, or who have comorbidities that preclude the use of intensive induction chemotherapy. These include venetoclax (BCL-2 inhibitor) in combination with hypomethylating agents (azacitidine or decitabine) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), and glasdegib (sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitor) in combination with LDAC. This flurry of new drug approvals has markedly altered the treatment landscape in AML and provided new opportunities, as well as new challenges for treating clinicians. This review will focus on how these drugs might shape clinical practice and the hurdles likely to be faced by new therapies seeking entry into this dynamic and rapidly changing therapeutic landscape.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)903-914
Number of pages12
JournalGenes Chromosomes & Cancer
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • acute myeloid leukemia review
  • elderly AML
  • new challenges
  • recent drug approvals

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