Children born very preterm are vulnerable for long-term cognitive, educational, and behavioral impairments; bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is an additional risk factor which exacerbates these problems. As a population, children with BPD exhibit low average IQ, academic difficulties, delayed speech and language development, visual-motor integration impairments, and behavior problems. Neuropsychological studies are sparse, but there is some evidence that children with BPD also display attention problems, memory and learning deficits, and executive dysfunction. BPD does not appear to be associated with a specific neuropsychological impairment but rather a global impairment.
- bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- educational status