Neural stimulation with an endovascular brain-machine interface

Nicholas L. Opie, Sam E. John, Giulia Gerboni, Gil S. Rind, Timothy J.H. Lovell, Stephen M. Ronayne, Yan T. Wong, Clive N. May, David B. Grayden, Thomas J. Oxley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review


Stimulation of deep cortical structures has been demonstrated to provide symptomatic alleviation to people with depression, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. However, electrodes used clinically for therapies requiring deep-brain-stimulation are currently limited to those that penetrate directly through delicate neural tissue following craniotomy or burr-hole surgery. Using an endovascular neural interface, the risks associated with open-brain surgery can be mitigated. Previously, we demonstrated proof-of-concept that a stent-electrode array can access the brain via blood vessels and can record high-fidelity neural information over a chronic duration. However, it was unknown whether focal stimulation could be delivered from within a cortical vessel. This work demonstrates that a stent-mounted electrode array can stimulate various regions of the sheep motor cortex to elicit visually observable and independent movements of the lip, face, jaw, neck and limb. While inter-animal differences were observed with respect to the elicited movement and stimulation threshold required to generate a response, there was reasonable consistency regarding the response and the location of the stimulating electrodes from the branching central sulcal veins. Six animals were observed to have multiple different and independent muscle movements time-locked to electrical stimulation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication9th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering
EditorsMichel Maharbiz, Cynthia Chestek
Place of PublicationPiscataway NJ USA
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781538679210
ISBN (Print)9781538679227
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBS) Conference on Neural Engineering (NER) 2019 - San Francisco, United States of America
Duration: 20 Mar 201923 Mar 2019
Conference number: 9th

Publication series

NameInternational IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISSN (Print)1948-3546
ISSN (Electronic)1948-3554


ConferenceInternational IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBS) Conference on Neural Engineering (NER) 2019
Abbreviated titleNER 2019
CountryUnited States of America
CitySan Francisco
Internet address

Cite this