Neonatal morbidities of fetal growth restriction: Pathophysiology and impact

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Being born small lays the foundation for short-term and long-term implications for life. Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction describes the pregnancy complication of pathological reduced fetal growth, leading to significant perinatal mortality and morbidity, and subsequent long-term deficits. Placental insufficiency is the principal cause of FGR, which in turn underlies a chronic undersupply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The neonatal morbidities associated with FGR depend on the timing of onset of placental dysfunction and growth restriction, its severity, and the gestation at birth of the infant. In this review, we explore the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of major neonatal morbidities in FGR, and their impact on the health of the infant. Fetal cardiovascular adaptation and altered organ development during gestation are principal contributors to postnatal consequences of FGR. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and management strategies of neonatal morbidities are presented. We also present information on the current status of targeted therapies. A better understanding of neonatal morbidities associated with FGR will enable early neonatal detection, monitoring and management of potential adverse outcomes in the newborn period and beyond.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
Number of pages18
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume10
Issue numberFEB
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Brain injury
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Cardiac
  • FGR
  • IUGR
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis

Cite this

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title = "Neonatal morbidities of fetal growth restriction: Pathophysiology and impact",
abstract = "Being born small lays the foundation for short-term and long-term implications for life. Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction describes the pregnancy complication of pathological reduced fetal growth, leading to significant perinatal mortality and morbidity, and subsequent long-term deficits. Placental insufficiency is the principal cause of FGR, which in turn underlies a chronic undersupply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The neonatal morbidities associated with FGR depend on the timing of onset of placental dysfunction and growth restriction, its severity, and the gestation at birth of the infant. In this review, we explore the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of major neonatal morbidities in FGR, and their impact on the health of the infant. Fetal cardiovascular adaptation and altered organ development during gestation are principal contributors to postnatal consequences of FGR. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and management strategies of neonatal morbidities are presented. We also present information on the current status of targeted therapies. A better understanding of neonatal morbidities associated with FGR will enable early neonatal detection, monitoring and management of potential adverse outcomes in the newborn period and beyond.",
keywords = "Brain injury, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Cardiac, FGR, IUGR, Necrotizing enterocolitis",
author = "Atul Malhotra and Allison, {Beth J.} and Margie Castillo-Melendez and Graham Jenkin and Polglase, {Graeme R.} and Miller, {Suzanne L.}",
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T2 - Pathophysiology and impact

AU - Malhotra, Atul

AU - Allison, Beth J.

AU - Castillo-Melendez, Margie

AU - Jenkin, Graham

AU - Polglase, Graeme R.

AU - Miller, Suzanne L.

PY - 2019/2/7

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N2 - Being born small lays the foundation for short-term and long-term implications for life. Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction describes the pregnancy complication of pathological reduced fetal growth, leading to significant perinatal mortality and morbidity, and subsequent long-term deficits. Placental insufficiency is the principal cause of FGR, which in turn underlies a chronic undersupply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The neonatal morbidities associated with FGR depend on the timing of onset of placental dysfunction and growth restriction, its severity, and the gestation at birth of the infant. In this review, we explore the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of major neonatal morbidities in FGR, and their impact on the health of the infant. Fetal cardiovascular adaptation and altered organ development during gestation are principal contributors to postnatal consequences of FGR. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and management strategies of neonatal morbidities are presented. We also present information on the current status of targeted therapies. A better understanding of neonatal morbidities associated with FGR will enable early neonatal detection, monitoring and management of potential adverse outcomes in the newborn period and beyond.

AB - Being born small lays the foundation for short-term and long-term implications for life. Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction describes the pregnancy complication of pathological reduced fetal growth, leading to significant perinatal mortality and morbidity, and subsequent long-term deficits. Placental insufficiency is the principal cause of FGR, which in turn underlies a chronic undersupply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The neonatal morbidities associated with FGR depend on the timing of onset of placental dysfunction and growth restriction, its severity, and the gestation at birth of the infant. In this review, we explore the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of major neonatal morbidities in FGR, and their impact on the health of the infant. Fetal cardiovascular adaptation and altered organ development during gestation are principal contributors to postnatal consequences of FGR. Clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and management strategies of neonatal morbidities are presented. We also present information on the current status of targeted therapies. A better understanding of neonatal morbidities associated with FGR will enable early neonatal detection, monitoring and management of potential adverse outcomes in the newborn period and beyond.

KW - Brain injury

KW - Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

KW - Cardiac

KW - FGR

KW - IUGR

KW - Necrotizing enterocolitis

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JO - Frontiers in Endocrinology

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