Nasal irrigation delivery in three Post-FESS models from a squeeze-bottle using CFD

Hana Salati, Narinder Singh, Mehrdad Khamooshi, Sara Vahaji, David F. Fletcher, Kiao Inthavong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Nasal saline irrigation is highly recommended in patients following functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) to aid the postoperative recovery. Post-FESS patients have significantly altered anatomy leading to markedly different flow dynamics from those found in pre-op or non-diseased airways, resulting in unknown flow dynamics. Methods: This work investigated how the liquid stream disperses through altered nasal cavities following surgery using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A realistic squeeze profile was determined from physical experiments with a 27-year-old male using a squeeze bottle with load sensors. The administration technique involved a head tilt of 45-degrees forward to represent a head position over a sink. After the irrigation event that lasted 4.5 s, the simulation continued for an additional 1.5 s, with the head orientation returning to an upright position. Results: The results demonstrated that a large maxillary sinus ostium on the right side allows saline penetration into this sinus. The increased volume of saline entering the maxillary sinus limits the saline volume available to the rest of the sinonasal cavity and reduces the surface coverage of the other paranasal sinuses. The average wall shear stress was higher on the right side than on the other side for two patients. The results also revealed that head position alters the sinuses’ saline residual, especially the frontal sinuses. Conclusion: While greater access to sinuses is achieved through FESS surgery, patients without a nasal septum limits posterior sinus penetration due to the liquid crossing over to the contralateral cavity and exiting the nasal cavity early.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2569–2584
Number of pages16
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • CFD
  • FESS
  • irrigation
  • nasal cavity
  • saline therapy
  • squeeze bottle

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