Naphthalimide-phthalimide derivative based photoinitiating systems for polymerization reactions under blue lights

Pu Xiao, Frédéric Dumur, Jing Zhang, Bernadette Graff, Didier Gigmes, Jean Pierre Fouassier, Jacques Lalevée

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32 Citations (Scopus)


Naphthalimide-phthalimide derivatives (NDPDs) have been synthesized and combined with an iodonium salt, N-vinylcarbazole, amine or 2,4,6-tris(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine to produce reactive species (i.e., radicals and cations). These generated reactive species are capable of initiating the cationic polymerization of epoxides and/or the radical polymerization of acrylates upon exposure to very soft polychromatic visible lights or blue lights. Compared with the well-known camphorquinone based systems used as references, the novel NDPD based combinations employed here demonstrate clearly higher efficiencies for the cationic polymerization of epoxides under air as well as the radical polymerization of acrylates. Remarkably, one of the NDPDs (i.e., NDPD2) based systems is characterized by an outstanding reactivity. The structure/reactivity/ efficiency relationships of the investigated NDPDs were studied by fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, electron spin resonance spin trapping, and steady state photolysis techniques. The key parameters for their reactivity are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-674
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Cationic photopolymerization
  • Light-emitting diodes (LED)
  • Naphthalimide-phthalimide derivatives
  • Photochemistry
  • Photoinitiator
  • Photopolymerization
  • Radical photopolymerization
  • Radical polymerization

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