Nanoscale Electrochemical Mapping

Cameron L. Bentley, James Edmondson, Gabriel N. Meloni, David Perry, Viacheslav Shkirskiy, Patrick R. Unwin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Surfaces and interfaces, of both practical and fundamental interest, have long been recognized to be complex, yet while there are many microscopy and spectroscopy methods for imaging structure, topography, and surface chemical composition at high spatial resolution, there are relatively few techniques for mapping associated chemical fluxes in the near-interface region. In this regard, scanning electrochemical probe microscopy (SEPM), which utilizes a small scale electrode probe as an imaging device, has had a unique place in the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family of techniques, in being able to map chemical fluxes and interfacial reactivity. For a long time, techniques such as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were largely stuck at the micrometer, or larger, scale in terms of spatial resolution, but recent years have seen spectacular progress, such that a variety of different types of SEPM techniques are now available, and 10s of nm spatial resolution is becoming increasingly accessible. This step change in capability is opening many new opportunities for the characterization of flux processes and interfacial activity in a whole raft of systems, including electrode surfaces, electromaterials, soft matter, living cells, and tissues.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-108
Number of pages25
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

Cite this